application of tqm in education

TQM strives to integrate all organizational functions (marketing, finance, design, engineering, and production, customer service, etc.) Arcaro opines that quality can create an ambiance where educationalists, parents, government officials, community representatives, and business leaders work jointly to deliver students with the resources they need to meet current and future academic, business, and societal needs [42]. The first level is to the management processes of a school. It indicates the flexible aspect of TQM, i.e. In the case of scholarship students, sponsors are the customers. This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Since this concept was initially developed in the manufacturing sector, therefore, there is a great deal of suspicion whether this philosophy is applicable in education. Total Quality P~ciples in education throughout North Amenca Education, ke business and indu- before it, must be willing to change in order to reflect the needs of our changing society and economy. TQM as a management model, with its emphasis on leadership, Now, TQM is recognized as a generic management tool and applicable to any organization. Sample school processes include strategic planning, recruiting and staff development, deploying resources, and alignment of what is … In this Lee and Hwan remark customer satisfaction is highly related to service quality and it is an important aspect for service organizations [16]. It has the capacity to provide practical solutions, positive results in academic and administrative functions. Yusof and Aspinwall state that TQM helps in creating a culture of trust, participation, teamwork, quality-mindedness, enthusiasm for continuous improvement, constant learning and as a result, a working culture that contributes towards a firm’s success and existence [20]. The pressure and demand for quality education are increasing. it has been found that TQM is a managerial instrument to resolve the issues associated with services as well as tactics in the academic industry and it can conform to the standard the education industry [27] [40]. According to Massy, the extreme resistance to quality process improvement comes from professors who consider it is just another business-oriented craze; a typical mindset may undermine the effectiveness of TQM is education[50]. As specified by British Standard Institution, TQM is composed of a “management doctrine and company patterns which intent to rein the human and material resources of an organization in the most efficient way to attain the goal of the organization” [22]. Originally, the concept was developed for manufacturing organizations; later on, it gained popularity to other service institutions, including bank, insurance, non-profit organizations, health care and so on. Sohel-Uz-Zaman, A. and Anjalin, U. There is no doubt that TQM has full potential to serve education. Goetsch and Davis opine that TQM consists of relentless improvement activities, involving everybody in the business in a totally integrated effort towards improving performance at every level [7]. There is a long debate about the definition of quality in education. Tribus believes that education can be improved through quality management [30]. According to Witcher, TQM is the combination of three terms―Total: meaning that one is involved, including customer and suppliers; Quality: indicating that customer needs are met exactly; and Management: indicating that senior executives are committed [9]. Total quality management is a pattern of convenient facilities small and medium enterprises that seek to raise thequality, but its application requires a new way of thinking which may not agree with what used to it, it is important when applying any new administrative method, like total quality management in particular, to help workers to accept Yudof and Busch-Vishniacstate that TQM embraces the norm that organizations should listen to their customers, continually evaluate how well they are responding to their needs and initiate change in order to meet or exceed the desires of the customers [14]. The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question(s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. In two different studies by Venkatraman and Peat et al. Applies the concepts to a towards a financial and services centre. Houston mentions that the way the definition of quality is given based on the customers’ needs and expectations in business and industry environments is not totally appropriate for education [54]. On the other hand, Koch and Fisher observe that TQM approach seems to be more administrative and bureaucratic; there is a tendency to produce relentless meetings, generate enormous amounts of paper, and delay or escape critical decision making [36]. Lunenburg comments that TQM is also relevant to corporations, service organizations, universities, and elementary and secondary schools [1]. [12]. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work. A student can be both the consumer and customers if he or she pays his or her tuition fees. The school teachers must establish the context in which students can best achieve their potential through the continuous improvement that results from teachers and students working together. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a philosophy of management that strives to make the best use of all available resources and opportunities through continuous improvement. Gaither believes that TQM is the process of changing the basic culture of an organization and redirecting it towards superior product or service quality [19]. It is necessary to spread professional management practices in the educational institutions. Includes a review of the published literature on theories and applications of TQM in higher education. It enhances a feeling of confidence and trust and alleviates insecurity and fear among members of an institution. With business playing a key role in the initiation of TQM at colleges and universities through companies like Motorola and IBM, there will be a significant increase in the application of TQM to higher education in the next five to ten years. According to Srivanci, without a precise definition of customer and a customer focus, quality efforts may be easily diffused [25]. Short & Rahim define TQM is a proactive approach, to confirm quality into the product, service and design of the process and then to continually improve it [4]. TQM tends to put more emphasizes on non-academic activities (e.g. The core objective of this study is to assess the compatibility of TQM with education. TQM values are only somewhat useful in a dynamic and changing environment which is a characteristic of modern higher education as observed by Koch and Fisher [36], and Houston [37]. Ali and Shastri comment that vagueness in customer identification also creates obstacles in TQM implementation [55]. An Academic Publisher, Implementing Total Quality Management in Education: Compatibility and Challenges (). Meirovich and Romarobserve that the findings of the literature on the usefulness of TQM in education are differing [24]. A similar thought is also echoed by Sallis; he mentions that it (TQM) requires a change of culture; it requires a change of attitudes and working methods, as well as a change in institutional management [61]. Although higher education institutions are not like companies but, some of the basic principles and tools are applicable as these are instruments at the service institutions and their governance and management boards subject to the institution’s academic mission, goals and strategies as noticed by Dill [38] and Harvey [39]. There appear to be three levels of application of quality management in education. It (TQM) is a method by which management and employees are involved in continuous improvement of the production of goods and services. Brown et al. It leads continuous improvement of the capabilities of the employees. to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives. With the help of TQM, an academic institution would be able to develop its own definition of quality, benchmark, and quality improvement practices in the light of customers’ requirement. In the job market, employer organizations are also the customers. In TQM customer is an exclusive issue and customer satisfaction is considered as a major source of business success. It is also imperative to explore the nature of those challenges so that academic institutions can take proper measure proactively while pursuing TQM in education. TQM heralds a change in the work culture by educating all employees on quality and making quality the concern of everybody, not just the Quality Control department. Seymour identifies a number of reasons for unsuccessful application of TQM in higher education, such as resistance to change; lacking of administration commitment; high time investment due to personal training; difficulty in applying TQM tools to higher education institutions; insufficient experience of team leaders and staff in teamwork; the anxieties of higher education institutions have with their own results not being sufficient enough [47]. Vinni comments TQM creates such environment in which all the assets are used ingeniously and effectively in order to provide quality service the institution needs to adapt in this fast paced world [8]. ); resistance from the faculty members as it (TQM) impedes their authority and freedom, violate the confidentiality related to assessment, promotion, salary and so forth and practice of teamwork in education process as these are not consistent with the traditional teaching process; and defining customers and measuring outcomes are two major difficulties in implementing TQM in education since a wide range of customers (like students, parents, researchers, alumni, business firms and so on) are involved in higher education so it very difficult who are the real customers in education, it is equally difficult to measure the outcomes of quality initiatives [57]. School of Business & Economics, United International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Department of Business Administration, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Instead, it is wise to choose those tools and techniques which are consistent with an academic institution. It is essential to resolve this problem. At the same time, this study would try to identify key challenges in implementing TQM in education. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Uzunboylu doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.826 CY-ICER 2012 Application of six-sigma in educational quality management Javad Mehrabi a * a Factually of management and Accounting,Islammic Azad … Edgecumbe's implementation of TQM principles has proceeded from an adapted version of Deming's fourteen points for quality in organizations. Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the most popular management processes adopted by many institutions (Ritter, 2005). For example, Sirvancimentions that the use of quality function deployment (QFD) which is used to incorporate the preference of customers and other stakeholders in program design [25]. TQM as a management model, with its emphasis on leadership, strategy, teamwork, rigorous analysis and self-assessment, has a universal message. TQM is a system and set of practices which are aimed at relentless quality improvement and better business performance. Herman and Herman (1994) stated three levels of application of quality management in education. The biggest obstacle could be the commitment from the parties involved with education system, especially the top management and teachers. It reviews one of the ERIC Digest No. ?¢üá~ùÔÛa%/XÜ9ìZ¯ClµŠD¢3. The applicability of TQM in the educational sector has attracted the interest of many researchers and practitioners In this connection, the main objective of this study is to investigate the compatibility of TQM with education. Points out that recent discussion has centred on the application of total quality management (TQM) in education. The schools or other type of academic institutions are very much different with a different ethos and characteristics that made difficult, or even impossible to implement a philosophy which has been derived from industry [47] [48] [49] [50]. The role of individual, particularly the teachers are often informal and less bureaucratic in traditional education system. Youssef et al. Lo; D. Sculli 1996-09-01 00:00:00 Pearl River Delta of Southern China, while Discusses an application of total quality management Hong Kong has gradually restructured (TQM) concepts in education. Edgecumbe High School's Modified Deming Points for Quality in Education," these goals have been reviewed and updated as the school's program has evolved. TQM principles are compatible with higher education as mentioned by Helms and Key [26] and Venkatraman [27]. An application of TQM concepts in education An application of TQM concepts in education V.H.Y. discuss the application of Six Sigma, Service Quality (SERVQUAL), ISO9000, and TQM in higher education [44]. education have begun to explore various management processes (McMillan, 1998). As leaders in education begin to adopt TQM as their operational philosophy, they are discovering the good news—and the bad news—about TQM. Total Quality Management is a management approach that was instigated in the 1950s and has gradually become popular since the early 1980s. Among the major benefits of Total Quality Management is improvement in Organizational Development. The term customer may be very easy to define in manufacturing or business organizations. In addition, they learn quality-related Ishikawa emphasizes on the relevance of total quality control to boost organizational performance; according to him, quality initiatives should go beyond the product and service; entire organization is with the jurisdiction of TQM which will result in enhanced business performance [21]. TQM views an organization as a collection of interrelated processes. Most of the applications have been in the administrative side of the institutions, but some schools have applied TQM to curriculum development. A critical step in TQM implementation is the process of customer identification. As a whole, the state is also a customer. TQM has taken a battering as the Japanese economy has shown its frailties. TQM uses employee capabilities in all activities and processes and makes collaboration feasible and real as comprehended by Schargel [18]. As an approach, TQM represents a permanent shift in an institution’s focus away from short-term expediency to the long-term quality improvement.  TQM in education has as its message the idea that every student has worth and demands the best possible chance in life 5. In order to more fully understand CQI (TQM), a Bayraktar et al. The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm "Total Quality Management" (TQM), and its application in the field of education. However, defining and identifying customer is a challenge in education. notice some critical obstacles such as: ineffective leadership; obstruction to change; contradictory policies; inappropriate organizational structure; and poor management of the change process are other shortcomings in implementing TQM [59]. TQM aims at achieving quality in everything one does. Called "Mt. Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. This research investigated the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Information Technology Office (IT) of the University of Louisville since fall 1992. It is a changing way towards continuous improvement. The process toward total quality is a slow and steady process; it needs time, this change can be achieved with patience, cooperation, and assistance. TQM promotes a quality culture because it can ensure improved product and service quality. Furthermore, each institution should be a learning organization focusing on the individual development of the learner, as well as the empowerment of all staff as emphasized by Spanbauer [13]. Rosa et al. According to Houston, the definition (customer) prevails in industry or business environment which based on the idea of satisfying customers’ needs and expectations, is a problematic one in education [54]. Nevertheless, in this connection the remark of Sousa and Voss is quite thought provoking; they comment that TQM principles are not universally applicable across all contexts but are contingent on contextual factors [45] [46]. In addition, academic institutions should adopt a more customer oriented approach in dealing with their student. Kosgeidetectsa number of challenges in this regard, too; these are: lack of commitment by the management and some workforce, school’s organizational culture, poor documentation, inadequate training of staff, and ineffective communication [60]. According to Deming, TQM is a management philosophy that requires a radical cultural change from traditional management to continuous improvement management style in an organization [5]. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management philosophy developed for industry aims to improving the quality of production, but educators believe that the TQM can also be applied in education. notice that lack of top management commitment affects TQM efforts negatively, which is one of the main reasons of failure of TQM efforts [52]. 125. TQM is not sudden. TQM is exploited in educational system, which offers assistance in teaching and learning process in order to continuous improvement in quality through the complete educational process. TQM means achieving quality in terms of all functions of the enterprise. Total Quality Management (TQM) is recognized as an effective management philosophy which is used as a strategy for business excellence. While attaining these objectives this study would make a special focus on the term TQM so that the characteristics and the potential benefits of adopting TQM can be visualized to all. The term ‘quality’ is at the core of this philosophy. This study does not offer any framework or guidelines what will make implementing TQM successful in an organization; rather it is involved in explaining what could motivate an academic institute to embrace TQM into its process; examining to the extent to which TQM is relevant and matching with education; and what may hinder the successful application of TQM in education. a shift is needed from traditional management culture to a total quality culture. This paper aims to investigate how TQM can be applied in industry and education. Seymour identifies a number of reasons for unsuccessful application of TQM in higher education, such as resistance to change; lacking of administration commitment; high time investment due to personal training; difficulty in applying TQM tools to higher education institutions; insufficient experience of team leaders and staff in teamwork; the anxieties of higher education institutions … reveal that a number of TQM elements have a critical role in process improvement including, “leadership”, “vision”, “measurement and evaluation”, “process control and improvement”, “program design”, “quality system improvement”, “employee involvement”, “recognition and reward”, “evaluation and training”, “student focus”, and “other stakeholder focus” in higher education [43]. Michael et al. In the application of TQM all educational administrators are committed to quality, they are not only actively involved in quality management and improvement process, but also strongly encourage teachers’ involvement in quality management and improvement process. quality management has a lot to teach education. TQM advocates about the people development very explicitly because business excellence largely depends on the extent employees of an organization are capable in their respective fields. At the same time, this study would try to identify those challenges which may impede the application of TQM in education. Many organizations have achieved excellence and competitive lead by putting into practice TQM policy. A good number of scholars find that some TQM tools and techniques are convincingly suitable in education. Yang perceives TQM is a set of practices that focuses on the systematic improvement, satisfying the customers’ needs, and decreasing rework [6]. Random selection of TQM tools, techniques and concepts shall not provide any meaningful benefit. However, in general, it can be said that in order to make TQM successful, it is essential to create a quality culture, i.e. The message is clear that business is improved by the satisfied customers and it is ruined by the dissatisfied customers as expressed by Anderson and Zemke [15]. According to De Jager and Nieuwenhuis, even though TQM developed within the manufacturing environment, the benefits are equally applicable to service organizations such as higher education institutions [34]. TQM and Education. TQM is a systematic approach to education reform based on the philosophy of W. Edwards Deming (2000). It is assumed that this study would be able to draw a meaningful conclusion regarding the applicability of TQM in education as well as to create an awareness regarding those challenges which may create obstacles in implementing TQM in education. The study includes a detailed literature review of the relationship between TQM and higher education institutions. According to Srivanci, they believe that the values of TQM are similarly appropriate in higher education [25]. From the abovementioned discussion, it is clear that TQM is credibly compatible with the education. TQM is the holistic management approach that incorporates all the organizational activities to satisfy customers’ needs and achieving overall organizational objectives as outlined by Kumar et al. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. in quality improvement. Overall, this term (quality) may create a complex situation for the academic institutions. 4. Customer focus, Continuous improvement, Prevention verse inspection, people based management, fact based decision making, strong leadership, quality corporate culture, people oriented technology, feedback, empowerment, benchmarking, good governance, are the major principles of TQM for academic libraries are as follows: As discussed the main objective of an academic library is … comment that TQM can be defined as a general management philosophy and a set of tools which allow an institution to pursue a definition of quality and a means for achieving quality, with quality being a continuous improvement as determined by customers’ satisfaction with the services they have received [23]. Koch acknowledges a wide range of reasons, these are: lost in focus, i.e. It must not be taken as granted that there are no challenges or barriers in implementing TQM in education. Dobyns and Crawford-Mason comment that whatever the determining incentive, where quality ma- nagement has been implemented in education, it has made an enormous difference as mentioned [33]. Abstract The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm "Total Quality Management" (TQM), and its application in the field of … Scientific Research All concerned parties of the education are actively considering implementing TQM in education because it is believed that quality education is one of the fundamental building blocks of economic development. Copyright © 2006-2020 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All Rights Reserved. Total Quality Management: Application in Vocational Education. The fourth TQM principle applied to education is that the success of TQM is the responsibility of top management. There are some authors who are very much confident about the applicability of TQM in education. In this paper education refers to primary, secondary and tertiary level education, including professional and vocational education, etc. Reviewing fresh literature from the internet and other sources, the works of W. Edward Deming’s: fourteen principles for quality assurance, Philip Crosby’s: fourteen points for quality … (2016) Implementing Total Quality Management in Education: Compatibility and Challenges. In order to enjoy these benefits academic institutions are inclined to espouse TQM into their process. While defining total quality management, scholars took the opportunity to present their perceptions regarding this term in numerous ways; as a result, a good number of definitions appear before us with different connotations. curriculum development; teaching and learning style, tuition fees, student welfare etc. state that quality can have multiple meaning in higher education and this variety has considerable influences on the development of methods and instruments of measuring quality; and this variety also can create different stakeholders for the higher education institutions [53]. Peak maintains that TQM improves educational organizations in many ways, such as improving education process, making the educational environment motivating, improving educational curriculum, boosting the speed of training services and reducing costs [31]. Although the concept of total quality management was advocated by Dr. W. Edwards Deming in the late1950’s in the USA; however, Japan was the first national who embraced this concept to recover their economy after the World War II. Crosby states that quality management is a methodical way of ensuring that organized activities happen the way they are planned [3]. Spanbaueridentifies TQM as a pragmatic model focuses on service to others [13]. In order to understand the current state of application of TQM in the higher education sector in Jordan based on the model shown in Figure 1, a survey was conducted to measure each of the level of readiness and implementation of the three basic building blocks. Total Quality Management: Definition, Characteristics and Benefits. quality management programme … Philosophies like total quality management (TQM), which have been successfully adopted in commercial organizations, are generally seen as the way forward. Sarrico et al. Quinn et al. 6. Some educators believe that philosophy which is developed for business may not be appropriate for service organization like educational institutions. According to Williams, continuous quality improvement; quality consistency; participation of academics, students and non-academic staff; satisfaction of the clients; and the existence of management procedures that reinforce quality are a number of quality management programs that nobody would consider irrelevant in the context of higher education [41]. Data and information for this study are collected through extensive literature, interviewing experts and personal experience. Escrig considers TQM as a strategic action that focuses on managing the total organization to provide products or services that fulfill their customer requirements by utilizing all resources [11]. TQM Components in the High School Mt. The Air Force Academy has been a leader in this application of TQM. Quality culture can foster the TQM principles like continuous improvement, open communication, fact-based problem solving and decision making, etc. According to these definitions, TQM is a plan, a systematic approach to ensure quality and continuous improvement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 47 ( 2012 ) 1358 – 1362 1877-0428 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. The advantages of Total Quality management have been valued by many companies around the world. Oakland expresses TQM as an approach involving the whole organization for understanding each activity of each individual at each management layer [10]. state that the terms such as product, client, empowerment, or even strategy, reengineering do not easily correspond in higher education institutions [51]. Total Quality Management (TQM) has been adopted by many organizations worldwide, its implementation in non-profit organizations, such as higher education institutions, presents more challenges and difficulties than those encountered in business organizations. The term stands for the process of shifting the focus of the organization towards a superior quality of products and services. it is applicable to any organization and subject to adjustment as per merit of the situation. Others believe that TQM is to some extent applicable in education. ZVƒ]=ÖÎÄßê"´Dw(?#É35bš‘¬›ŠÁ‘œLXý(#ºÖQ}#ï¥é›ørˋØlÃÏj(¡ªeF»G@œbª1t§ã½¬i:ýø2YÇvi³†f»µ;¤Í©,¨™‹¬–Oº³QEôb`Z™©çëe F:?.™U?JXÑMOɕâ{œ Y«r‹švÔíÍ®Ë~ÅØÙìAM|§GÏWñ€åjØû}‹N]Æ$“ç¿/¯Kõü Practical Applications of Total Quality Management (TQM) – Part I. Quality education is a great concern in many societies across the world. Conventional teacher- student relationship is no more value adding to anyone. It implies that TQM tools and techniques are subject to fine tuning while applying in education. While conducting an initial investigation it was also revealed that there are critical challenges in implementing TQM in education. Regarding the applicability of TQM in education, there is a serious debate since this concept was initially developed for manufacturing organizations. TQM is a way of achieving and maintaining excellence in higher education as realized by Eriksen [32]. The qualitative methodology has been chosen for this study. From these definitions, it is easily possible to identify the essential characteristics as well as the significant offerings of TQM, such as: continuous improvement; integration of people, functions and resources; systematic and structured approach; quality control at every level of the organization and at every step of the operating process; developing human and organizational capabilities; efficient utilization of resources; people participation; customer satisfaction; creating a quality culture and so on. Most writers appear inclined to suggest that TQM is a unique solution for effective school management. This exploratory approach would give an opportunity to understand and clarify the main problem of this study. TQM APPROACH IN TAECHING AND LEARNING PROCESS In any educational system, quality of teaching and learning is an essential and important part. Deming enunciates that the adoption of TQM will help institutions of higher education to maintain their competitiveness, eliminate inefficiencies in the organization, help to concentrate on the market needs, attain high performance in all areas, and fulfill the needs of all stakeholders [29]. Dale, et al. Deming describes TQM is a never-ending cycle of progress in the system of production should change into gaining better performance and quality standards for the product [5]. Murad and Rajesh perceive TQM is a general management philosophy and a blend of various tools which induce educational institutions to pursue a description of quality and the means to achieve it [35]. This situation is complicated in the case of tertiary level of education. The success of TQM in Japan made this concept famous in many countries across the world. Although literature is available about the implementation of TQM to business and industry, very little is … To ignore change, and to maintain the statu quo in education, destines those institutions to a level of mediocrity thaî undermines the very fùhire of Deming's work is not merely about productivity and quality control; it is a broad vision on the nature of organizations and how organizations should be changed. ... demonstrate openly and decisively an ongoing personal commitment to Total Quality Management and its application to the continuing improvement of schools and their people. The finding of James and James is very noteworthy; they opine that TQM is naturally relevant to higher education, because it is a process oriented approach that is designed in increasing productivity, decreasing costs and improving quality [28]. In the case of elementary and high school level, it is relatively easy to define; parents are the customers and students are the consumers. “Total Quality Management” (TQM), and its application in the field of education. In recent years, TQM has been applied in the world of education to improve the quality of education since it is believed as an effective management … In a highly competitive education sector, the success of academic institutions depends on the quality of education. The observation of Wani and Mehraj is very much profound; according to them, TQM is a management philosophy which creates a customer-driven learning organization, devoted to total customer satisfaction through continuous improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization and its processes [17]. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a concept introduced by business and industry to establish standards and techniques that ensure the quality of products leaving and reaching firms through continuous actions rather than through one final inspection. TQM may be a popular phrase, but many in academia are not familiar with its underlying philosophy and techniques and especially its application to the academic sector. TQM and Education Total Quality Management in Education The concept of total quality was introduced by Prof. W. Edwards Deming in the year 1950, can be applied to almost every organization up to a certain level. Most of the principles of TQM can be implemented in the area of education and training. A quality culture is a system of shared values, beliefs, and norms that focuses on delighting customers and continuously improving the quality of products and services. find that the customers of higher education are much more diverse and not so easily defined [56]. Total Quality Management (TQM) is methodology that facilities adapting to today’s changing external environment. But despite the economic problems of the Japanese, who first put TQM into action, it has considerable resilience and much to teach us. Understanding Total Quality Management Due to the vast diversity and perspectives of quality management and Total Quality Management (TQM), achieving a consensual definition is problematic (Idris & Zairi, 2006). Key Challenges in Implementing TQM in Education. bill collection, check writing, admissions applications, and physical plant inventory) rather than core academic activities (e.g. years, TQM has been applied in the education industry. According to Koslowski, in this age of intense competition, quality education is a major concern [2]. 4. Rosa and Amaral also mention a number of barriers in implementing TQM in education: the absence of effective communication channels; the problem in measuring higher education institutions results; the co-existence of multiple purposes and objectives for higher education institutions; the emphases in the individualism and significant degree of internal competition; the bureaucratic decision-making process; and the lack of a strong leadership, highly committed to the ideas and principles it wants to apply and capable of involving all the institution’s members [58]. Educationalists, policy makers, scholars, and researchers are showing their sincere interest towards the total quality management (TQM) as it is recognized as an effective management philosophy for continuous improvement, customer satisfaction, and organizational excellence. However, according to Baird et al. (2011), TQM can be described as an integrative The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question(s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. Education has multitude interested parties. There is a wide range of tools and techniques available in TQM.

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