According to a 2013 article by Jeff Faux published by the Economic Policy Institute, California, Texas, Michigan and other states with a high concentration of manufacturing jobs have been the hardest hit by job losses due to NAFTA.  According to a 2011 article by EPI economist Robert Scott, about 682,900 U.S. jobs were “lost or displaced” by the trade deal.  Recent studies were consistent with Congressional Research Service reports that NAFTA had only a modest impact on manufacturing employment and that automation accounted for 87% of manufacturing job losses.  A fourth round of talks included a U.S. call for a sunset clause that would end the deal in five years unless the three countries agreed to maintain it, a provision that U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said would allow countries to terminate the agreement if it didn`t work. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau met with the House Ways and Means Committee because Congress would have to pass legislation that would push back the terms of the treaty if Trump tried to withdraw from the pact.  President Donald Trump promised during the election campaign to repeal NAFTA and other trade agreements that he considered unfair to the United States.
On August 27, 2018, he announced a new trade agreement with Mexico to replace him. The U.S.-Mexico trade agreement, as it was called, would maintain duty-free access for agricultural products on both sides of the border and remove non-tariff barriers to trade, while further promoting agricultural trade between Mexico and the United States and effectively replacing NAFTA. The U.S. Chamber of Commerce wrote that NAFTA increased U.S. trade in goods and services with Canada and Mexico from $337 billion in 1993 to $1.2 trillion in 2011, while the AFL-CIO accused the agreement of sending 700,000 U.S. manufacturing jobs to Mexico during that time.  The United States had a trade surplus of $28.3 billion in services with NAFTA countries in 2009 and a trade deficit of $94.6 billion (annual increase of 36.4%) for goods in 2010. This trade deficit accounted for 26.8% of the total U.S. trade deficit in goods.  A 2018 study on global trade published by the Center for International Relations identified irregularities in the trade models of the NAFTA ecosystem using theoretical network analysis techniques. The study showed that the US trade balance was affected by opportunities for tax evasion in Ireland.  According to a 2012 study, trade with the United States and Mexico increased by only a modest 11% with the reduction of NAFTA trade tariffs in Canada, compared to a 41% increase in the United States.
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